Building Materials

Types of building stones

Get to know the types of building stones

For those who do not have a specialized view of stones, stone is a hard solid material with high resistance that is sometimes used in construction. But the attitude of an expert to this category will be completely different. Building stones have special and different characteristics, in fact, not every kind of stone can be used as a building stone. Different stones have different physical and chemical characteristics that should be considered in their selection.

If you also intend to use stones in your building, it is good to know that stones are classified into different groups according to their appearance, body strength, compactness, uniformity, type of sanding, and construction material.

There are many types of building stones that you may not even have heard of, such as basalt, marble, quartzite, travertine, sandstone, gneiss and granite. These stones are used as building materials. But each of them has an effective use in different parts of the building. And due to the high price of some types of stones, it is necessary to use them more effectively.

Generally, stone for construction purposes is extracted from hard rock quarries. The stones used as building materials must be hard, durable and resistant to destructive factors (such as rain, sun, fog, etc.) with high and perfect resistance. In addition to the appearance features, they must have a good appearance and appearance to create a unique beauty.

Brittle, cracked, soft and low-strength stones will not be used in construction. According to their hardness and resistance, stones will have different uses. On the other hand, the quality of processing is also very important. Stones that do not have good processing quality will eventually rot and corrode and will not be usable.

For example, harder stones such as basalt and granite are more used in major construction works – such as building floors, staircases, etc. – due to their high resistance and hardness, and light stones with little resistance such as gneiss are more used in the purposes are used decoratively.

Characteristics of the most famous building stones

Some of the stones mentioned have more general uses and are therefore better known. In this section, we introduce some of them and point out their special features.


This stone is an example of igneous rocks that are found in abundance. Basalt is a dense and hard stone that exists in nature in various colors.

The applications of basalt are generally industrial, and in the road construction industry, it is used as concrete aggregates or as rubble in the construction of piers, sides and body of bridges, walls of dams and rivers. The structure of basalt stone is in the form of small or medium grains compressed together.

Its strength is in the range of 200MPA to 350MPA. Basalt has a good resistance to weathering, but seems a little weak against moisture. Its colors in nature vary from dark gray to black. It is not bad to know that basalt has a non-construction application as well.

Fibers are made from basalt stone that have high abrasion resistance, tensile strength, strength and adhesion and low flammability along with dielectric properties.



Granite, which is in the category of igneous rocks, is composed of quartz, mica and feldspar. This stone is found in abundance in nature. Granite is very resistant and hard and has a rock shape.

Due to its high resistance, this type of stone is mostly used in constructions that require high strength. Granite has different colors depending on its composition, which ranges from gray and black to pink, blue and green.

Due to its hardness and porosity, granite is a good choice for cabinets, open kitchens and interior decoration. It is also suitable for use in the interior of the fireplace due to its heat resistance.

The interesting thing you should know about granite is that its resistance to heat is less than its resistance to cold and weathering. If polished granite is used, it can have applications such as covering building columns, wall facades, and flooring.

Also, the resistance to water penetration in granite makes it possible to use this stone as a building facade. Granite also has industrial applications and is used for civil purposes, which includes the walls of bridges, retaining walls of dams, stone columns, aggregates for making concrete, and ballast for railway tracks.


Granite STONE


Another type of building stone is marble. Marble is a type of metamorphic stone. The basis of marble is limestone, which turns into marble due to pressure and heat, and its resistance increases. The scientific name of marble is onyx, which is introduced in the market as marble.
The gravity of marble is about 2.72. Marble is mainly composed of calcite or dolomite crystals. This stone has been used as a building stone for many centuries and has various uses.

Marble is mostly used in bathrooms, toilets, and jacuzzis as wall and floor tiles, basins, and bathroom floor trays.

It is also used for other applications such as fireplaces, staircases, decorative table bases, and sometimes for building facades.


This rock is a type of sedimentary rock that is formed by the condensation of lime containing calcium carbonate and aragonite or dolomite. The place of formation of this stone is in warm waters and they appear under the influence of the pressure exerted on the sediments of the upper layers, which are usually algae, corals or calcium carbonate deposits.
There is no foreign classification of marble in the world and this name is used only in Iran. This stone is also known as Sanandji stone.
Marble is white in its pure state, but due to the presence of impurities that are combined with the raw materials of this stone during its formation, the colors of cream, red, brown, pink, black, mustard, green, etc. also appear.

This stone is used in making paving stones, floors and stairs. Water absorption and permeability of this stone is very low and its resistance to fire is suitable and high against humidity and weathering.

The specific weight of this stone is 2670 kg/m3 and it is less dense than its counterpart, marble. Its different types include porcelain, crystal and cloud.


This rock is a type of sedimentary rock and is composed of quartz and feldspar. Originally, sandstone is formed from the union of silica grains.
Sandstone has a variety of colors such as white, gray, red, brown and yellow; The reason for the presence of such colors is the main composition of sandstone, i.e. iron oxide and silica. Their porosity usually fluctuates between 5 and 25%. Due to its weathering properties, it is not suitable for use on the facade of the building.

If the use of sandstone is required in the building, these stones are used with a combination of silica cement for heavy and concrete structures. Sandstone is used for masonry, construction of dams, walls of bridges and piers.

Another use of sandstone is due to its crushing property. Its shards are used in making sharpening stones, which are tools for sharpening the edges of metal tools such as knives.

On the other hand, due to its high resistance, this stone is a suitable material for foundation and use as flooring.

STONE Traunix

Traunix stone, which is one of the most widely used types of building stones, consists of parallel strips of chalcedony and has a different color. Tunics is actually placed between marble and travertine, and on the other hand, it has the properties of both. Transparency and light transmission are placed next to parallel and sometimes wavy strips.
Traunix stone consists of many crystals and is formed from the combination of quartz and magnetite. It is used because of its transparent nature which has decorative properties and walls that reflect light. Its other use is in construction. Onyx stone is used in the construction of temples in ancient Egypt and Greece.

Because of its beauty after being polished, traunix is ​​very popular in ornamental use, even the greats like Da Vinci and Michelangelo have used onyx in many of their works.

In addition, some believe that onyx has very strong positive energies and has healing properties. This stone is different from onyx marble, which is a metamorphosed limestone.

Quartzite Stone

This type of rock is from the metamorphosed rock family, which turns into pure quartz sandstone due to heat and pressure.

Quartzite is much more resistant than granite, that’s why it is suitable as a stone on the open, cabinet and the like. But due to the higher price, it is not affordable to use it for normal purposes.

White quartzite is very similar to marble, but it has more resistance than it. The brighter the color of the quartzite, the higher its purity.

This stone can also be used as a decorative stone for stairs, tiles and floors. Crushed quartzite is also used to produce silica sand for industrial purposes.

Due to its high hardness, this type of building stone is also used in the ballast of railway tracks. Compared to other types of building stones, quartzite has a high resistance to cold, heat, acid substances, weathering and abrasion, and it can be said that it is a very strong and practical stone.

Quartzite is often confused with granite, but this stone is more resistant than granite and its appearance is rough and crystalline. Its color range is mostly burnt brown, red and gray. Unlike other types of building stones, quartzite does not require special maintenance.

To clean quartzite stone, it is enough to use a damp cloth to clean its surface from dust, available disinfectants for light stains, and a tool with a slightly sharp tip to remove tougher stains such as varnish. , color, or other things used.

slate stone

This type of rock belongs to the family of metamorphic rocks and is formed when sedimentary rocks are subjected to high pressure.

Slate has high resistance, and on the other hand, it has the ability to withstand weathering and water corrosion. This stone will also remain strong against frost.

It can also be easily divided into desired parts. For this reason, it is widely used for covering floors and ceilings. The most common use of slate stone is in buildings, which are used as floor stones, kitchen tables, and stones on cabinets.


Travertine stone, which is used as another type of building stone, is a type of limestone that is made from the rapid combination of water and calcium carbonate. Usually, this stone is formed at the mouth of hot springs.

The specific weight of travertine stone is 2500 kg/m3. Travertine is softer than marbles in terms of hardness.

Travertine stone is resistant to weather changes, rain and snow, and it has a lot of variety in terms of color.

Travertine stones exist in nature in white, cream, chocolate, red, walnut, yellow, lemon and silver colors. There is no defined location limit for the use of travertine stone. Therefore, travertine can be used both in the exterior of buildings and in the interior.

The veining of travertine stones is such that they can be classified into two types, wavy and non-wave. Over the past years, the use of travertine stone for the exterior of buildings has been very common. Travertine stones are also used in the floors of some spaces in Europe and America.

The bright travertine blocks that are extracted from the mines have different color types, that’s why after cutting, they are classified into different color categories.

The appearance characteristic of travertine stones is the presence of holes and depressions on their surface. Although this roughness can be easily turned into a smooth surface by polishing, this stone with the same appearance is used for purposes such as facing stones, flooring and walls of bathroom basins and the like.


Limestone is a type of sedimentary rock that has not been affected by the temperature and pressure of the lower layers of the earth, so they do not have high resistance. Limestone is actually calcium carbonate that has been compressed and hardened under the influence of sedimentary processes, and since they are soft and malleable, their use is limited. Due to the softness of limestone, it can be used in making stone sculptures, and on the other hand, its lightness and water absorption have limited its use as a stone material. Nowadays, with the development of nano technology and the use of waterproof materials in covering the surface of limestones, they can be used as facing stones. The price of limestone is lower than other types of stones.

Dehbid Marble Stone

Unique features of Dehbid Marble

1 / Stylish and shiny stone: These very beautiful stones have a very clear and shiny surface due to their high sub-susceptibility, high molecular density and very low porosity.

2 / Uniform and natural surface: In addition, Dehbid stones often have a uniform and uniform surface with very small and unique differences.

3 / Practical and modern colors: Dehbid stones are available in a variety of light and dark colors and often cream.

4 / Reasonable price: Due to the internal nature of its mines, this beautiful stone is provided to consumers at a reasonable price.

5 / Export quality: This stone is one of Iran’s export stones to foreign countries due to its very high quality, which is known as Royal Botticino. It is worth mentioning that only Iran exports this type of stone.

6 / Arbitrary dimensions and excellent cutability: These stones have high strength and durability with excellent cutting capability. For this reason, they are cut to standard sizes as well as desired and often in square dimensions (tiles) as well as slab sizes.